The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse

 

U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

State ConCons Since 1776
To Propose Changes

Total number: 236

Source: The data here are drawn extensively from Albert Sturm’s “The Development of American State Constitutions,” Publius, 1982. But Sturm’s data are incomplete.  In addition to their limited date range of 1776 to 1982, they overlooked at least three state constitutional conventions prior to 1982.  In interpreting this data, it is important to understand that “state constitutional conventions,” although given the same generic name, may operate in fundamentally different ways.

State ConCons Since 1776
To Ratify Changes

Total: Number 51 

  1. Ratification of the U.S. Constitution from 1787-1788

wdt_IDStateStart DateEnd DateExpected VoteFinal VotePopulation (1000s)Pop. Rank# Proposed Amendments
1 Delaware 12/04/1787 12/07/1787 30–0 30–0 60 13 0
28 Pennsylvania 11/20/1787 12/12/1787 46–23 46–23 434 3 0
38 New Jersey 12/11/1787 12/18/1787 38–0 38–0 184 9 0
39 Georgia 12/25/1787 12/31/1787 26–0 26–0 83 11 0
40 Connecticut 01/03/1788 01/09/1788 128–40 128–40 238 8 0
41 Massachusetts 01/09/1788 02/06/1788 177–178 187–168 475 2 9
42 Maryland 04/21/1788 04/26/1788 64–12 63–11 320 7 13
43 South Carolina 05/12/1788 05/23/1788 149–73 149–73 250 5 5
44 New Hamphsire 06/18/1788 06/21/1788 52–52 57–47 142 10 12
45 Virginia 06/02/1788 06/25/1788 84–84 89–79 821 1 20
wdt_IDStateStart DateEnd DateExpected VoteFinal VotePopulation (1000s)Pop. Rank# Proposed Amendments


Ratification of the U.S. Constitution’s 21st Amendment from 1933-1934

NumberStateState Ratification DateFederal Ratification Date (36 state threshold)Before 12/5/1933 Federal Ratification Date
1 Michigan 4/10/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
2 Wisconsin 4/25/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
3 Rhode Island 5/8/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
4 Wyoming 5/25/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
5 New Jersey 6/1/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
6 Delaware 6/24/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
7 Indiana 6/26/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
8 Massachusetts 6/26/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
9 New York 6/27/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
10 Illinois 7/10/1933 12/05/1933 Yes
NumberStateState Ratification DateFederal Ratification Date (36 state threshold)Before 12/5/1933 Federal Ratification Date


Source: Everett Somerville Brown, ed., Ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: State Convention Records and Laws, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1938, p. 209.