The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse

 

U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1776

Total number: 236

Source: The data here are drawn extensively from Albert Sturm’s “The Development of American State Constitutions,” Publius, 1982. But Sturm’s data are incomplete.  In addition to their limited date range of 1776 to 1982, they overlooked at least three state constitutional conventions prior to 1982.  In interpreting this data, it is important to understand that “state constitutional conventions,” although given the same generic name, may operate in fundamentally different ways.

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1776 (Searchable, Sortable Version)

Total number: 236

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1787 To Ratify Changes to U.S. Constitution

Number of such state constitutional conventions from 1787-1788: 13

Number of such state constitutional conventions from 1933-1934: 39

Total: 52


1) Ratification of the U.S. Constitution from 1787-1788


2) Ratification of the U.S. Constitution’s 21st Amendment from 1933-1934