The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse

 

U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1776

Total number: 236

Source: The data here are drawn extensively from Albert Sturm’s “The Development of American State Constitutions,” Publius, 1982. But Sturm’s data are incomplete.  In addition to their limited date range of 1776 to 1982, they overlooked at least three state constitutional conventions prior to 1982.  In interpreting this data, it is important to understand that “state constitutional conventions,” although given the same generic name, may operate in fundamentally different ways.

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1776 (Searchable, Sortable Version)

Total number: 236

 

 

State Constitutional Conventions Since 1787 To Ratify Changes to U.S. Constitution

Number of such state constitutional conventions from 1787-1788: 13

Number of such state constitutional conventions from 1933-1934: 39

Total: 52

 


1) Ratification of the U.S. Constitution from 1787-1788

wdt_ID State Start Date End Date Expected Vote Final Vote Population (1000s) Pop. Rank # Proposed Amendments

2) Ratification of the U.S. Constitution’s 21st Amendment from 1933-1934

State and Date Yes/No
Michigan (April 10, 1933) Yes
Wisconsin (April 25, 1933) Yes
Rhode Island (May 8, 1933) Yes
Wyoming (May 25, 1933) Yes
New Jersey (June 1, 1933) Yes
Delaware (June 24, 1933) Yes
Indiana (June 26, 1933) Yes
Massachusetts (June 14, 1933) Yes
New York (June 27, 1933) Yes
Illinois (July 10, 1933) Yes
Iowa (July 10, 1933) Yes
Connecticut (July 11, 1933) Yes
New Hampshire (July 11, 1933) Yes
California (July 24, 1933) Yes
West Virginia (July 25, 1933) Yes
Arkansas (August 1, 1933) Yes
Oregon (August 7, 1933) Yes
Alabama (August 8, 1933) Yes
Tennessee (August 11, 1933) Yes
Missouri (August 29, 1933) Yes
Arizona (September 5, 1933) Yes
Nevada (September 5, 1933) Yes
Vermont (September 23, 1933) Yes
Colorado (September 26, 1933) Yes
Washington (October 3, 1933) Yes
Minnesota (October 10, 1933) Yes
Idaho (October 17, 1933) Yes
Maryland (October 18, 1933) Yes
Virginia (October 25, 1933) Yes
New Mexico (November 2, 1933) Yes
Florida (November 14, 1933) Yes
Texas (November 24, 1933) Yes
Kentucky (November 27, 1933) Yes
South Carolina (November 7, 1933) No
Ohio (December 5, 1933) Yes
Pennsylvania (December 5, 1933) Yes
Utah (December 5, 1933) Yes
Maine (December 6, 1933) Yes
Montana (August 6, 1934) Yes

38 states ratified the 21st amendment; 9 states did not have a popular election on the matter. It became part of the U.S. Constitution after 36 states ratified it.