The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse


U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

Election Results for Constitutional Convention Calls from 1960 to Present

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 * Blank votes counted as no votes. The first number is no votes; the second is blank votes.

Election results in yellow (yellow) if an ordinary majority (more yes than no votes) was received. In Hawaii in 1996 and Maryland in 2010, a referendum received an ordinary majority, but the legislature exploited vague majority denominator language to argue that the required majority was a majority of voters voting on any proposition at the election. For details, see and

The last successfully called constitutional convention referendum in any U.S. state was Rhode Island in 1984.

Oklahoma’s Constitution mandated that the legislature place the periodic referendum on the ballot in 1990, but the legislature refused to do so. Oklahoma voters rejected a legislature initiated referendum to remove this constitutional requirement in 1994, but the legislature still refused to place the constitutionally mandated referendum on the ballot.