The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse

 

U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

Election Results for Constitutional Convention Calls from 1960 to Present

Year State Yes (#) No (#) Yes (%) No (%) Convened?
1965 New York 1,486,431 681,438 68.57% 31.43% Yes
1966 Maryland 160,280 31,680 83.50% 16.50% Yes
1966 Hawaii 199,097 62,120 76.22% 23.78% Yes
1970 Iowa 204,517 214,663 48.79% 51.21% No
1970 Maryland 214,358 277,212 43.61% 56.39% No
1970 Montana 72,643 133,482 35.24% 64.76% No
1970 Oklahoma 58,223 187,934 23.65% 76.35% No
1972 Alaska 29,192 55,389 34.51% 65.49% No
1972 New Hampshire 96,794 73,365 56.88% 43.12% Yes
1972 Ohio 1,291,267 2,142,534 37.60% 62.40% No
1976 Hawaii 199,831 69,264 74.26% 25.74% Yes
1977 New York 1,126,902 1,668,137 40.32% 59.68% No
1978 Michigan 640,286 2,112,549 23.26% 76.74% No
1980 Iowa 404,249 640,130 38.71% 61.29% No
1982 Alaska 63,816 108,319 37.07% 62.93% No
1982 Missouri 406,446 927,056 30.48% 69.52% No
1982 New Hampshire 115,351 105,207 52.30% 47.70% Yes
1984 Rhode Island 159,801 137,096 53.82% 46.18% Yes
1986 Connecticut 207,704 379,812 35.35% 64.65% No
1986 Hawaii 139,236 173,977 44.45% 55.55% No
1988 Illinois 900,109 2,727,144 24.82% 75.18% No
1990 Iowa 179,762 491,179 26.79% 73.21% No
1990 Maryland 321,412 470,477 40.59% 59.41% No
1990 Montana 53,630 245,009 17.96% 82.04% No
1992 Alaska 84,929 142,735 37.30% 62.70% No
1992 New Hampshire 210,340 217,575 49.15% 50.85% No
1992 Ohio 1,672,373 2,660,270 38.60% 61.40% No
1994 Michigan 777,779 2,008,070 27.92% 72.08% No
1994 Rhode Island 118,545 173,693 40.56% 59.44% No
1996 Hawaii 163,869 160,153 50.57% 49.43% No
1997 New York 929,415 1,579,390 37.05% 62.95% No
1998 Hawaii 140,688 244,753 36.50% 63.50% No
2000 Iowa 299,972 598,318 33.39% 66.61% No
2002 Alaska 60,217 152,120 28.36% 71.64% No
2002 New Hampshire 177,721 184,042 49.13% 50.87% No
2002 Missouri 569,598 1,079,085 34.55% 65.45% No
2004 Rhode Island 162,296 175,296 48.07% 51.93% No
2008 Connecticut 579,904 847,518 40.63% 59.37% No
2008 Hawaii 152,453 281,418 35.14% 64.86% No
2008 Illinois 1,493,203 3,062,724 32.77% 67.23% No
2010 Iowa 317,577 649,316 32.85% 67.15% No
2010 Maryland 897,239 751,228 54.43% 45.57% No
2010 Michigan 983,019 1,960,573 33.40% 66.60% No
2010 Montana 140,869 198,664 41.49% 58.51% No
2012 Alaska 90079 179567 33.41% 66.59% No
2012 New Hampshire 215,679 384,014 35.96% 64.04% No
2012 Ohio 1,523,239 3,248,142 31.92% 68.08% No
2014 Rhode Island 133,862 164,202 44.91% 55.09% No
2017 New York 594,820 2,910,868 17.0% 83.0% No
2018 Hawaii 94,579 275,300 + 28,529 23.7% 69.1% +7.2%* No
2020 Iowa 408,746 972,930 29.4% 70.6% No

Notes

 * Blank votes counted as no votes. The first number is no votes; the second is blank votes.

Election results in yellow (yellow) if an ordinary majority (more yes than no votes) was received. In Hawaii in 1996 and Maryland in 2010, a referendum received an ordinary majority, but the legislature exploited vague majority denominator language to argue that the required majority was a majority of voters voting on any proposition at the election. For details, see Hawaii.concon.info and Maryland.concon.info.

The last successfully called constitutional convention referendum in any U.S. state was Rhode Island in 1984.

Oklahoma’s Constitution mandated that the legislature place the periodic referendum on the ballot in 1990, but the legislature refused to do so. Oklahoma voters rejected a legislature initiated referendum to remove this constitutional requirement in 1994, but the legislature still refused to place the constitutionally mandated referendum on the ballot.