The State Constitutional Convention Clearinghouse


U.S. states where the people can use a state constitutional convention to bypass the legislature's gatekeeping power over constitutional amendment

Periodic Constitutional Convention Elections Results from 1965 to Present


  Average  Yes (%)  No (%)
 Since 1964  38.48%  61.52%
 Since 1984  37.27%  62.73%
 Since 2004  37.90%  62.10%


Election results in bold if an ordinary majority (more yes than no votes) was received.

The last successful constitutional convention referendum in any U.S. state was Rhode Island in 1984.

Oklahoma’s Constitution mandated that the legislature place the periodic referendum on the ballot in 1990, but the legislature refused to do so. Oklahoma voters rejected a legislature initiated referendum to remove this constitutional requirement in 1994, but the legislature still refused to place the constitutionally mandated referendum on the ballot.

In Hawaii in 1996 and Maryland in 2014, a referendum received an ordinary majority but the legislature exploited vague majority denominator language to argue that the required majority was a majority of voters voting on any proposition at the election.

2010 was a historic high in U.S. history for the number (4) of constitutional convention referendums in one year.